 Define and explain classic geodesy
 Define and explain
modern geodesy
precise global and regional locations, both horizontal and vertical (along the Earth and above the Earth), mapping the land sea, and ice, and determining the variations in the Earth’s gravitational pull and how this effects measurements
 Define and explain GNSS
 Define
topographic surface
a detailed map of the surface features of land. It includes the mountains, hills, creeks, and other bumps and lumps on a particular hunk of earth. The word is a Greekrooted combo of topos meaning "place" and graphein "to write."
 Define geoid
 Explain what a geoid is a model of how the model is made
 Explain why geoids are used in GIS and Cartography
 Define ellipsoid
 Define
spheroid
a spherelike 3D object where the radius in one direction is longer than the radius in a direction at a right angle to the first
(ellipsoid of revolution)
 Define
reference ellipsoid
an ellipsoid that is drawn to bestfit an area. World reference ellipsoids are drawn to bestfit the entire geoid; local ellipsoids are best fit on one side to a single place of the geoid
, global
reference ellipsoid
an ellipsoid that is drawn to bestfit an area. World reference ellipsoids are drawn to bestfit the entire geoid; local ellipsoids are best fit on one side to a single place of the geoid
, local
reference ellipsoid
an ellipsoid that is drawn to bestfit an area. World reference ellipsoids are drawn to bestfit the entire geoid; local ellipsoids are best fit on one side to a single place of the geoid
 Explain when and why we use ellipsoids
 Explain when and why we use spheroids
 Define and explain Cartesian Coordinate Systems
 Define
geodetic datum
the result of attaching a "freefloating"
reference ellipsoid
an ellipsoid that is drawn to bestfit an area. World reference ellipsoids are drawn to bestfit the entire geoid; local ellipsoids are best fit on one side to a single place of the geoid
to a specifically measured geoid via control points and benchmarks.
 Explain how geodetic datums are made
 Define benchmark and control points
 Explain the similarities and difference between
benchmarks
Benchmarks are realworld locations which have been carefully surveyed with locations to match a specific geoid.
and control points
 Define and explain horizontal and
vertical datums
used to reference locations and distances above mean sea level; elevation.
 Define
orthometric height
the measured distance between the geoid and the
topographic surface
a detailed map of the surface features of land. It includes the mountains, hills, creeks, and other bumps and lumps on a particular hunk of earth. The word is a Greekrooted combo of topos meaning "place" and graphein "to write."
.
 Define ellipsoid height

 Define
geoid separation
the measured difference between the ellipsoid and the geoid
 Explain when we use
orthometric height
the measured distance between the geoid and the
topographic surface
a detailed map of the surface features of land. It includes the mountains, hills, creeks, and other bumps and lumps on a particular hunk of earth. The word is a Greekrooted combo of topos meaning "place" and graphein "to write."
.
, ellipsoid height, and
geoid separation
the measured difference between the ellipsoid and the geoid
 Define and explain datum shifts, both major and minor
 Define Earthcentered, Earthfixed Coordinate Systems
 Define and explain
geographic grid
the result of using an established angular unit of measure to label the intersections of northsouth and eastwest lines on the surface of the Earth starting the labels at a
principal meridian
the northsouth line from which the labeling begins. Eastwest lines have a very obvious start point: the equator. Northsouth lines must start somewhere, so when it is established for a particular geographic grid, it can be considered the principal meridian.
 Explain where a
geographic grid
the result of using an established angular unit of measure to label the intersections of northsouth and eastwest lines on the surface of the Earth starting the labels at a
principal meridian
the northsouth line from which the labeling begins. Eastwest lines have a very obvious start point: the equator. Northsouth lines must start somewhere, so when it is established for a particular geographic grid, it can be considered the principal meridian.
is drawn
 Thoroughly explain geographic coordinate systems (GCS) including the parts it's made up of, why it's used, and how it differs from a
geographic grid
the result of using an established angular unit of measure to label the intersections of northsouth and eastwest lines on the surface of the Earth starting the labels at a
principal meridian
the northsouth line from which the labeling begins. Eastwest lines have a very obvious start point: the equator. Northsouth lines must start somewhere, so when it is established for a particular geographic grid, it can be considered the principal meridian.
 Define projected coordinate systems (PCS)
 Explain the advantages of PCS's
 Explain the disadvantages of PCS's
 Define and explain distortion, naming the six kinds of distortion
 Define and explain
developable surface
a geometric shape which will not be distorted when flattened. Used as the base shape to transfer features during projections. Most often a cone, cylinder, or plane (azimuthal)
 Name the three major developable surfaces
 Define and explain
projection
technically: the result of using one of variety of methods to transfer the geographic locations of features from a geographic coordinate system to a developable surface
everyday use: any coordinate system, geographic or projected
aspect
The direction the
developable surface
a geometric shape which will not be distorted when flattened. Used as the base shape to transfer features during projections. Most often a cone, cylinder, or plane (azimuthal)
faces in relation to the geographic coordinate system. Normal; transverse, oblique
 Name the three major
projection
technically: the result of using one of variety of methods to transfer the geographic locations of features from a geographic coordinate system to a developable surface
everyday use: any coordinate system, geographic or projected
aspects
 Define and explain
projection
technically: the result of using one of variety of methods to transfer the geographic locations of features from a geographic coordinate system to a developable surface
everyday use: any coordinate system, geographic or projected
method
 Explain the difference between a
projection
technically: the result of using one of variety of methods to transfer the geographic locations of features from a geographic coordinate system to a developable surface
everyday use: any coordinate system, geographic or projected
method and a PCS
 Define and explain the State Plane Coordinate System
 Define and explain the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) system
 Define
map scale
a mathematical representation expressing distance on a map vs distance on the ground
