**Net Present Value**(**NPV**) is a **formula** used to determine the present value of an investment by the discounted sum of all cash flows received from the project.

Similarly, it is asked, are sunk costs included in NPV?

These are the initial outlays required to analyze a project that cannot be recovered even if a project is accepted. As such, these **costs** will not affect the future cash flows of the project and should not be considered when making capital-budgeting decisions. The $50,000 is considered a **sunk cost**.

Is net present value calculated before or after tax?

**Net Present Value** Discount Rate. AS a general rule if you are using **before tax** net cash flows then use **before tax** discount rates. **After tax** net cash flow should use **after tax** discount rate.

Do we include depreciation in cash flow?

If **depreciation** is an allowable expense for the purposes of calculating taxable income, then its presence reduces the amount of tax that a company **must** pay. Thus, **depreciation** affects **cash flow** by reducing the amount of **cash** a business **must** pay in income taxes.

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